An assessment of Government of India’s Samagra Siksha Abhiyan

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Education is an important and powerful tool for society to progress in multiple dimensions such as science, economics, politics and other spheres.   India formulated National Policy on Education in 1986, and with that a number of programs also came into being. Some of the programs are listed as under:

Ø  Rashtriya Madhyamik Siksha Abhiyan (RMSA) initiated in 2009 (Grade IX to XII)

Ø The Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Restructuring and Reorganization of Teacher Education (CSSTE) initiated in 1987

Ø  Sarv Siksha Abhiyan (SSA) covers elementary level education (Grade I to VIII)


The NPE, (as modified in 1992) specifically laid emphasis again on increasing access to secondary education with particular focus on participation of girls, SCs and STs; increased autonomy of Boards of Secondary Education to enhance their ability to improve quality; introduction of ICT in school curriculum for coping with globalization; renewed emphasis on work ethos and values of a humane and composite culture in the curricula; and vocationalisation through specialized institutions or through the refashioning of secondary education to meet the manpower requirements of the growing Indian economy.

Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan subsumes the three schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE). The main outcomes of the Scheme are envisaged as Universal Access, Equity and Quality, promoting Vocationalisation of Education and strengthening of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs).”

Recently, there has been shift in school development approach, which proposes to treat school education holistically from class I to class XII. 


The key areas of focus planned under the scheme, where significant opportunity for technology interventions exists are:


1.       Universal access including Infrastructure Development and Retention

2.       Inclusive Education

3.       Quality

4.       Digital Initiatives

5.       Teacher education and training

6.       Monitoring

 Investment in Program

Investments are envisaged under Section 12 of RTE Act 2009 on following:

ü  Annual recurring aid or grants to schools covering consumables, scholarships, stipend, free education to under privileged, sanitation, drinking water facility, school uniforms, teaching learning material, medical care etc.

ü  Transport and escort facilities to children of grade I to VIII and to children with special needs (CWSN)

ü  Residential facilities for boys and girls to serve children in sparsely populated areas or where it is difficult to get land for deprived children or children without adult protection. Girls Hostel (KGBV – Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalay) is one of the initiative in this respect.

ü  Maintenance and Upgradation of primary to secondary schools or opening of new schools along with necessary infrastructure such as labs, library, toilets etc.

ü  Special training for out of school children to enable direct admission in a class appropriate for his age.     

ü  Vocational training


Analysis of Program Performance

    The data on the program performance is published on – the open data portal of Government of India. Some of the program performance KPIs as per the investment objectives are visualized per the data published as under.  

May please note that visualizations may not work in older IE. Use Edge version 80.0.361.109 or higher. Chrome Version 80.0.3987.149 or higher. Best viewed on laptops or desktops. The code and data regarding this analysis may also be accessed from egovspace gitub respository.

Andhra Pradesh students show best performance in Science and Mathematics. In language English & MIL, Mizoram and Delhi students have shown best performance. 

To compare states select states by dragging along x-axis in first chart or hover mouse for state name in any chart. 

While Uttar Pradesh has achieved higher number of building Upper Primary School target, Madhya Pradesh and some other states have done better job at construction of Upper Primary Schools with separate Girl Toilets.

Whereas, looking at the numbers of girls hostel, we can say that Jharkhand has relatively higher number of girls per KGBV (Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya) than mean, and may qualify for improvement in count of KGBVs.

Maharashtra has the highest number of Children with Special Needs(CWSN) covered under Samagra Siksha Abhiyaan. The number of CWSN recognized under SSA in Maharashtra is almost double the number in Uttar Pradesh. Considering the number of reported disabled in Uttar Pradesh is 3.6 million compared to Maharashtra, government may accordingly prioritize.

When looking at the provisions for Children with Special Needs, we find that maximum focus is on “Orientation of Principle, Educational Institutions” and “Stipend for Girls” up to Highest Class VIII. The investment (financial and physical count) reduces for higher classes of X and XII.


The size of square represent count of provisions. Hover on squares for financials.

Central government releases funds to states for expenditure to execute Samagra Shiksha Abhiyaan (SSA) program. The expenditure and released funds for states is presented as under from 2015-16 to 2018-19. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar receive and expend the biggest portions. 


The size of circle represent count of provisions. Hover on circles for financials.

The sanctioned and completed targets of states for improving the school infrastructure is presented in the below visual. Madhya Pradesh has better sanctioned and completed numbers, when compared to other states. Other than Rajasthan, no state comes close to Madhya Pradesh when it comes to building school infrastructure for elementary schools.



Hover on counts of infrastructure.

Further Readings

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