IoT operates by making use of devices to exchange data, and take action basis guidance from data. There can also be situation where a set of devices are working in unison for a common objective and communicating over internet. There may be many use cases where using IoT will give strategic, tactical and operational advantages to administration by developing applications for harnessing the data collected by these devices such as :
- Identifying areas for evacuation at the point of imminent natural disasters like storms, floods etc.
- Operational planning at the time of traffic congestion and helping government plan new roads.
- Monitoring loads by embedding wireless sensors in within concrete foundation piles.
- Accelerometers can be used to detect the potential potholes during cycling or driving
- Mid term and long term planning to assess health and safety measures as well as address environmental concerns such as Air Quality prediction and noise calculation.
- Road management – Heavy vehicle movement damages road. Building a network of weight monitoring sensors for heavy vehicles can help control road damages.
IoT produces large amount of big data. Opening vast amount of data to public has potential advantages in terms of increasing transparency and openness. The data can help citizens and businesses in self-service, ensure proper oversight, reduce labor & fraud cost, automated security and improvement opportunities in process efficiency.
Framework for designing and implementing smart government with IoT based system
The IoT architecture can be divided in 3 layers –
- Perception Layer: The perception layer consists of RFID tag and reader, camera, GPS, all kinds of sensors, sensor network, M2M terminals, and sensor gate (gateway), etc. The main function of perception layer is the perception and identification of objects and collecting information.
- Network Layer: The network layer is a convergent network that formed by all kinds of communication networks and the internet. The network layer has not only the ability of network operation, but should improve the ability of information operation.
- Application Layer: The application layer is where application systems reside. The data collected from various devices is converged, transformed and analyzed for relevant support to platform users. This layer provide relevant interfacing support to user devices.
“Smart Agriculture is now an unprecedented research area, which has numerous features, utilizing the sensors technology and ICTs. Among the benefits of innovative technologies are: improvement in the use efficiency of inputs, increased profitability, sustainability and food safety”
Case Study: Application of IoT in Precision Farming
Precision Farming is principle of management of agriculture parcels. The principles are aimed at optimizing yields and investments. Some of the activities that are influenced as a result of IoT are tillage, seeding, fertilization, irrigation and pesticide spraying. The data collection may be focused on 5 parameters –
- Moisture in the soil./ Proper watering
- Pest controlling activities
- Minerals and salts of the soil (Strength of Soil)
- Timely reporting of disorders (Alarming)
- Final yield of crop
The percentage of soil moisture and atmosphere is identified by generic water flow and temperature humidity and soil moisture sensors. The Pest controlling is done with the help of color detecting and odor, vibration and pressure sensors. The Minerals and salts of the soil are identified using odor, magnetic, pressure sensors. The timely reporting is done with the programming done in Embedded Development Kits (EDK) which can be delivered thorough servers or Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) to the respective authorities. The weight detecting sensors in addition to other related sensors are used in collection of the data. The data collection would depend on the placement of sensors. Different locations shall provide different data. Other than this, data collection also relies on working condition of sensors and internet.
The data collected through sensors is sent over Internet to IoT cloud. The cloud comprises of required hardware and software to store and analyze the data as per end user requirement. The mining of this data may help identify patches where watering or pest control is required. It may also help identify adequate manure or fertilizer additions to soil in a timely manner in order to improve soil’s strength. These parameters will also vary from crop to crop; not all crops require same quantity of manure additions or watering. Thus the reference for each crop, and suggestions thereby would also be crop and patch specific. The net outcome from the information provided by this data shall be high yield of crops.